We theorise that in some cases Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) predisposes to narcolepsy and hypersomnia, and that there may be a shared pathophysiology with various addictions [Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS)]. Reticence to acknowledge such connections may be due to a narrow nosological framework. Additionally, we theorise that the development of narcolepsy on a baseline of ADHD/RDS leads to an additional assault on the dopaminergic reward system in such individuals. In this study, we propose to test these hypotheses by using a combination of broad genetic screening, and neuroimaging with and without pharmacological intervention, in those with pure ADHD, pure narcolepsy, and the combined ADHD-narcolepsy phenotype. Results of this proposed study may reveal a common pathophysiology of ADHD, narcolepsy and RDS, and perhaps an additional compromise to the reward system in those with combined ADHD-narcolepsy. If the evidence supports the hypothesis that indeed there is a shared pathophysiology for narcolepsy with RDS and thus its subtype ADHD, early intervention/preventative treatment amongst those with ADHD may be beneficial with the putative dopaminergic compound KB220Z™.
Citation: Modestino EJ, Blum K, Oscar-Berman M, Gold MS, Duane DD, et al. 2015. Reward Deficiency Syndrome: Attentional/Arousal Subtypes, Limitations of Current Diagnostic Nosology, and Future Research.J Reward Defic Syndr Addict Sci 1(1): 6-9.