The objective of this manuscript is to summarize studies that demonstrate that the immune system participates in the expression of opiate withdrawal. Five groups of animals were used: 1. Chronic morphine control group; 2. The immune system was ablated in morphine-dependent rats.
Volume 6, Special Issue 1
Ubiratan Cardinalli Adler, Noemia Liege Maria da Cunha Bernardo, Karen Berenice Denez, João Gabriel Bernardo Bueno, Clarice Maria Specht, et al..
Previous results showed a significant decrease in cocaine-using days among cocaine users treated homeopathic fifty-millesimal (LM) potencies of Opium and Erythroxylum coca, as compared to placebo.
Sudhanshu Patwardhan and Ira Banerjee
Nicotine withdrawal may commonly manifest amongst hospitalised smokers under emergency; it has the potential to be underdiagnosed, and worse still, under-treated.