Volume 1 Issue 1


Molecular Genetic Testing in Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS): Facts and Fiction

Kenneth Blum, Rajendra D. Badgaiyan, Gozde Agan, James Fratantonio, Thomas Simpatico, et al.
The Brain Reward Cascade (BRC) is an interaction of neurotransmitters and their respective genes to control the amount of dopamine released within the brain. Any variations within this pathway, whether genetic or environmental (epigenetic), may result in addictive behaviors or RDS, which was coined to define addictive behaviors and their genetic components.

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The Molecular Neurobiology of Twelve Steps Program & Fellowship: Connecting the Dots for Recovery

Kenneth Blum, Benjamin Thompson, Zsolt Demetrovics, John Femino, John Giordano, et al.
There are some who suggest that alcoholism and drug abuse are not diseases at all and that they are not consequences of a brain disorder as espoused recently by the American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM). Some would argue that addicts can quit on their own and moderate their alcohol and drug intake.

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NIDA-Drug Addiction Treatment Outcome Study (DATOS) Relapse as a Function of Spirituality/Religiosity

Stephen J. Schoenthaler, Kenneth Blum, Eric R. Braverman, John Giordano, Ben Thompson, et al.
The connection between religion/spirituality and deviance, like substance abuse, was first made by Durkheim who defined socially expected behaviors as norms. He explained that deviance is due in large part to their absence (called anomie), and concluded that spirituality lowers deviance by preserving norms and social bonds.

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Using the Neuroadaptagen KB200z™ to Ameliorate Terrifying, Lucid Nightmares in RDS Patients: the Role of Enhanced, Brain-Reward, Functional Connectivity and Dopaminergic Homeostasis

Thomas McLaughlin, Kenneth Blum, Marlene Oscar-Berman, Marcelo Febo, Zsolt Demetrovics, et al
Lucid Dreams are a form of dream life, during which the dreamer may be aware that he/she is dreaming, can stop/re-start the dreams, depending on the pleasantness or unpleasant nature of the dream, and experiences the dream as if he/she were fully awake.

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Enhancing Brain Pregnenolone May Protect Cannabis Intoxication but Should Not Be Considered as an Anti-addiction Therapeutic: Hypothesizing Dopaminergic Blockade and Promoting Anti- Reward

Kenneth Blum, Marlene Oscar-Berman, Eric R. Braverman, Marcelo Febo, Mona Li and Mark S. Gold
Many US states now embrace the medical and recreational use of Cannabis. Changes in the laws have heightened interest and encouraged research into both cannabinoid products and the potential harms of Cannabis use, addiction, and intoxication.

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Reward Deficiency Syndrome: Attentional/Arousal Subtypes, Limitations of Current Diagnostic Nosology, and Future Research

Edward Justin Modestino, Kenneth Blum, Marlene Oscar-Berman, Mark S. Gold, Drake D. Duane, et al.
We theorise that in some cases Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) predisposes to narcolepsy and hypersomnia, and that there may be a shared pathophysiology with various addictions [Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS)]. Reticence to acknowledge such connections may be due to a narrow nosological framework.

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Should We Embrace Vaccines for Treating Substance- Related Disorder, A Subset of Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS)?

Kenneth Blum, Rajendra D. Badgaiyan, Daniel H. Angres and Mark S. Gold
Undoubtedly substance-related disorder is a chronically relapsing problem worldwide, the question is; should anti-drug vaccines be embraced for treatment of this enormous problem?. The Federal Drug Administration (FDA) in the United States has approved a number of Medical Assisted Treatments (MAT) for alcohol, opiates and even Nicotine abuse, while, other abusable drugs like cocaine and cannabis have not been addressed [1].

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